By Barbara Aho

The Freedom From Religious Persecution Act (HR 2431/S772) was authored by Michael Horowitz, a Senior Fellow at the Hudson Institute. Our own investigation reveals that Hudson Institute is part of a vast network of pseudo-conservative organizations which serve as fronts for the New World Order.

The following profile of Hudson Institute is excerpted from a publication offered by Mackinac Center for Public Policy which is related to the Heritage Foundation. It was written by Dr. Bruno Manno of the Hudson Institute making a case for Outcome Based Education. (According to the article, the public opposed OBE because the state did an inadequate job of educating.)

"The Institute is a private, not-for-profit research organization headquartered in Indianapolis with offices in Washington D.C.; Montreal, Canada; and Madison, Wisconsin. Hudson analyzes and makes recommendations about public policy for business and government...

"Hudson Institute was founded in 1961 by the late Herman Kahn and colleagues from the Rand Corporation. Initially, the institute focused on policy issues involving national security and international order...

"Hudson Institute's research agenda compromises six areas: national security and foreign affairs; human resources (including education, employment, and social welfare); economic and financial affairs; global food issues; political institution; and competitive issues executives, as well as for the public at large."

In her book, Educating for the New World Order, B.K. Eakman tells of a training manual for "change agents" developed for the U.S. government by Rand Corporation, also founded by Herman Kahn following World War II:
"What [education] researchers in Pennsylvania [found] was a how-to manual with a 1971 U.S. Office of Education contract number on it entitled 'Training for Change Agents'; [and] seven volumes of 'change agent studies' commissioned by the U.S. Office of Education to the Rand Corporation in 1973-74; [and] scores of other papers submitted by behaviorist researchers who had obtained grants from the U.S. Office of Education for the purpose of exploring ways to 'freeze' and 'unfreeze' values, 'to implement change,' and to turn potentially hostile groups and committees into acquiescent, rubber-stamp bodies by means of such strategies as the 'Delphi Technique.'" 1.

"The Rand Corporation’s change agent studies –– full of statistical data and very hard to obtain –– are essentially a set of feasibility studies. Apparently, the federal government wanted to know how difficult and costly it would be to move forward with a national version of the change-agent program. Volumes II and IV, respectively, of the Rand series are entitled 'Factors Affecting Change Agent Projects' and 'Factors Affecting Implementation and Continuation.' Without going into depth on these lengthy statistical studies, the titles here give a pretty good idea what the thrust of the work was. As with other change agent documents, the federal contract number is emblazoned plainly on the front cover of each Rand document." 2.

Hudson /Heritage / CFR Connections

The Heritage Foundation has well-documented connections with many subversive organizations and individuals -- old and neo-Nazis, Sun Myung Moon's Unification network, Communism and the United Nations. Listed in the Heritage directory of organizations that share the foundation's beliefs is Hudson Institute. The source of Hudson's brochure by Brunno Manno is the Heritage-related Mackinac Center for Public Policy.

The Heritage Foundation list of past Scholars and Fellows included the late Herman Kahn, founder and director of the Hudson Institute. Former U.S. Secretary of Education, William Bennett, is currently a Senior Fellow at Hudson Institute and Distinguished Fellow at the Heritage Foundation. Present Hudson Fellows also include Dennis Doyle, Chester Finn, and Pierre Du Pont who, with Bennett serve on the board of directors of the Center for Education Reform (CER), whose President is Jeanne Allen, formerly of Heritage. Hudson is also part of the Heritage Foundation School Choice Program Network and linksdirectly to the Education Policy Institute (EPI), a Heritage subsidiary.

Other crossover memberships occur among the officers of Heritage Foundation, Hudson Institute and the Council for National Policy :

Pierre Du Pont IV: CNP / Trustee Emeritus Hudson Institute
Coors Family: CNP / Holly Coors, Heritage Foundation Trustee, Joe Coors, Heritage Foundation Honorary Trustee
DeVos Family (Amway Corp): CNP / Funds CNP, Hudson Institute and Heritage Foundation
Jay Van Andel: CNP / Co-Founder and Senior Chairman of Amway Corporation / Hudson Board of Trustees / Funds Heritage Foundation
Beurt Servaas: CNP / Hudson Board of Trustees

Hudson's long list of benefactors includes: Amway, DuPont, Exxon, Forbes, Ford Motor Co., J. Paul Getty, McDonalds, Oscar de LaRenta, Pew Charitable Trusts, Sarah Scaife Foundation (Mellon). In 1988, Adolph Coors Foundation gave $25,000 to Hudson for programs involving U.S. foreign policy issues, economic growth and defense. 3.

Hudson Institute's directors include many individuals who belong to the Council on Foreign Relations:


Walter P. Sterns, Chairman of the Board (CFR)


Kenneth Duberstein (CFR)
Prof. Roger D. Fisher (Harvard Law School; CFR)
Alexander M. Haig, Jr. (CFR, Knights of Malta)
Dan Quayle (CFR, Bilderberg Group)
John C. Whitehead (CFR, Bilderberg Group)


William E. Odom, Senior Fellow, Director, National Security Issues (CFR)
Norman Podhoretz, Senior Fellow (CFR)


Frank C. Carlucci (CFR; Trilateral Commission)
Paula Dobriansky, Vice President (Director, Washington Office CFR; Host of National Empowerment Television Freedom's Challenge)
Mary Eberstadt (CFR)
Dr. Stephen F. Starr (CFR/Trilateral Commission; Director, Rockefeller Brothers Foundation; Chairman, Central Asia Institute, Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, Johns Hopkins University)

Also a member of the CFR is Hudson Institute/GOALS 2000 SCANS committee member, J. Paul Sticht, who expressed the view that the future workforce need not be educated, but "managed and trained...although a small cadre of highly educated creative people are essential to innovation and growth."

Hudson as a Futurist Organization

The Hudson Institute describes its orientation as "futurist," "contrarian," and "unconventional."

"Hudson is a nonpartisan futurist organization that is known for its healthy skepticism of conventional wisdom and its guarded optimism about solving tomorrow’s problems today. Herman Kahn, along with Max Singer and Oscar Rubenhausen, established Hudson Institute as a research organization dedicated to thinking about the future from a contrarian point of view. From 1961 to 1983, Kahn maintained – and depended on – a research staff committed to engaging in intellectual exchange and analysis that offered predictions about the future."
In the late 1970s, Herman Kahn authored three books believed to have measurably impacted American anti-war sentiment, leading to decreased government spending on military projects and increased spending on education programs:
"Hudson produced unconventional works such as Kahn’s On Thermonuclear War, which examined in frightening detail the consequences of nuclear proliferation, and The Next 200 Years, where Kahn and Anthony Wiener extrapolated into the future. As funding for military research projects decreased, Hudson started examining domestic social and economic issues. These efforts produced books such as Frank Armbuster’s Our Children’s Crippled Future, which examined the failings of the American educational system long before they became a matter of widespread public concern."

Hudson Institute & GOALS 2000

Alice Bailey's channeled work, The Externalisation Of The Hierarchy, discloses the critical areas in which change agents would prepare humanity for the New Age: "The three main channels through which the preparation for the new age is going on might be regarded as the Church, the Masonic Fraternity and the educational field." 4.

Hudson Institute has played a pioneering role the area of education reform. Dr. Brunno Manno, former senior fellow in Hudson's education policy studies program, developed the aforementioned profile of Hudson Institute for his promotion of Outcome Based Education. Dr. Manno is also part of the Annie E. Casey Foundation, which played a large role in GOALS 2000, the radical plan for restructuring American education under George Bush (renamed AMERICA 2000 under the present administration). AEC is currently playing a large role in influencing the direction of the state network of Family Policy Councils.

The America 2000/Goals 2000 Research Manual mentions Dr. Manno of Hudson Institute in a strategic government position for the restructuring of American education.

"[In 1991] Developing Leaders for Restructuring Schools: New Habits of the Mind and Heart was released. The Forward to this report of the National LEADership Network Study Group on Restructuring Schools was written by Brunno Manno, Assistant Secretary of the Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education…

"In this report, one reads: 'Because restructuring schools create organizational structures that support risk taking and innovation, they often require that external and internal controls - laws and regulations, policies and bargaining agreements - be modified or waived.' The report advocates the following: 'create dissonance,' 'create interdependencies,' and 'encourage risk taking.'" 5.

The Modern Red Schoolhouse [MRS] Design Team

The New American Schools Development Corporation [NASDC] was established as a private non-profit tax exempt organization by the National Business Roundtable and the National Association of Business working with the strategists of GOALS 2000. NASDC used private monies to implement government reform, which amounted to Big Business setting their own standards for education; by-passing the traditional avenues of representational government. This strategy allowed the corporate community, which is unelected, to set standards for education with the view of producing a workforce to meet the needs of business. Hudson Institute was one of eleven private sector organizations to offer alternative plans for the failing education system.

The Modern Red Schoolhouse [MRS] design team is Hudson Institute's plan for the break the mold school design project. Strangely, MRS and all of the other school design team plans looked identical, due to the fact that they were required to include the nine essential components which the National Business Roundtable [David Hornbeck and Paul Hill of GOALS 2000/RAND Corporation] developed. This was one of those contests where the winners were pre-determined.

Present fellows on the staff of Hudson Institute were involved in the development of GOALS 2000. Bennett's involvement goes back many years to when he was Secretary of Education, having been screened by the Heritage Foundation for this position in the Reagan administration. William Bennett is also co-director with Jack Kemp and Jeane Kirkpatrick of Empower America, whose President and CEO until March, 2000 was Josette Shiner, a high-ranking Unification Church member and former editor at the Sun Myung Moon-owned Washington Times newspaper.  The board of Empower America is composed almost entirely of CFR members and/or high ranking Freemasons, including Jack Kemp [33º Mason], Jeane Kirkpatrick [CFR], Michael Novak [CFR], Trent Lott [33º Mason], Ward Wood [CFR], Theodore Forstmann [CFR] and past board member Newt Gingrich [CFR, 33º Mason].

On the Hudson MRS Design Team, William Bennett served as chairman with Dennis Doyle, Chester Finn, Jr., Pierre du Pont IV and Lamar Alexander (former Education Secretary under George Bush). Chester Finn, author of AMERICA 2000 with Lamar Alexander, also sits on the National Education Goals Panel for GOALS 2000. Chester Finn and Diane Ravitch are co-directors of the Thomas Fordham Foundation's Educational Excellence Network, which works with Hudson Institute, and also direct the Education Policy Institute (EPI), bringing together GOALS 2000 players with Heritage Foundation's Center for Education Reform.

It is interesting that, under William Bennett, the U.S. Department of Education’s role was greatly expanded. Many of the behavioral surveys were developed at that time to measure the beliefs and adaptability of students. Also, Chester Finn’s Bio at the web sites of Hudson Institute and Fordham Foundation, where Finn is President, do not mention his role on the GOALS 2000/ National Education Goals Panel [let alone his authorship of GOALS 2000].

As head of the US Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement, Chester Finn also authored WE MUST TAKE CHARGE: Our Schools and Our Future. In this book, not only does Finn advocate a national curriculum, but he also writes:

"The school is the vital delivery system, the state is the policy setter (and chief paymaster), and nothing in between is very important. This formulation turns on its head the traditional American assumption that every city, town and county bears the chief responsibility for organizing and operating its own schools as a municipal function. That is what we meant by 'local control,' but it has become an anachronism no longer justified by research, consistent with sound fiscal policy or organizational theory, suited to our mobility patterns, or important to the public." 6.

Hudson's Workforce 2000

Hudson Institute scholars also developed Workforce 2000: Work and Wonders for the 21st Century. This publication calls for restructuring the American workforce in such a manner that only a small percentage of the population will be educated.

"In 1987, Hudson’s landmark study Workforce 2000 accurately forecasted the changes the American workforce would encounter with the new millennium. In 1997, Hudson released its sequel, Workforce 2020. In addition, Hudson played a crucial role in engineering Wisconsin’s Welfare-to-Work system in 1995, and its once-supported Modern Red Schoolhouse Project has been implemented by dozens of schools across the Midwest."
Hudson's web site announced the Workforce 2020 Conference preparing for the Millennium:
"Don't miss the Workforce 2020 Conference on September 23-24, hosted by Hudson Institute, publishers of the book, Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. America's top workforce experts will speak."
Among the top workforce speakers listed were Hudson scholars, Chester Finn and co-author of Workforce 2000, Arnold Packer. The latter is also described as "Professor, Director of SCANS/2000 Johns Hopkins University...former Executive Director of the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) at the U.S. Department of Labor."

SCANS was a pivotal document coming out of the Department of Labor at the upstart of GOALS 2000 -- identifying qualities business expected to be instilled in the workforce of the future. "Arnold Packer's book, Learning a Living: A Blueprint for High Performance was described in the SCANS report as 'the seminal study' which 'laid the cornerstone' of the 'reform structure' we continue to assemble." 7. The elitist philosophy of the Hudson Institute was expressed by SCANS committee and CFR member, Thomas Sticht, in the following statement:

"Many companies have moved operations to places with cheap, relatively poorly educated labor. What may be crucial, they say is dependability of a labor force and how well it can be managed and trained not its general educational level, although a small cadre of highly educated creative people are essential to innovation and growth."
For those who may be unfamiliar with education reform issues, Robert Holland explains What's Wrong with School-to-Work?
"School-to-Work, which is linked with Goals 2000, injects the federal government deeply and dangerously into shaping the curriculum of American schools. It puts the United States in the camp of regimes that decree what knowledge is "official," and, even more than that, how that knowledge should be taught and for what purpose.

"School-to-Work locks students into career tracks much too early, chilling opportunity and killing youthful dreams.

"Throughout their history, Americans have rejected efforts to have the government track their children into jobs satisfying the designs of economic planners.

"School-to-Work, as part of a national human resource development system, cuts local school boards and state legislators almost completely out of the decision-making loop... It will teach those skills the government planners say that children-whom they consider to be "human capital"-need to have in the Brave New Millennium.

"School-to-Work drastically narrows the curriculum, making it less likely that schools will produce literate, well-rounded generalists who can cope with rapid change in civic life as well as the workforce. School-to-Work is about the servile arts, not the liberal arts. We should remember that the liberal arts derive from the Latin libera, which means freedom. Vocational training can be liberating, too, but not compulsory training to meet state workforce quotas. That is a form of slavery."

Spring, 1998

Freedom From Religious Persecution

1.    B.K. Eakman, Educating for the New World Order, Halcyon House, Portland, OR, 1991, p. 118.
2.    Ibid., p. 121.
3.    Russ Bellant, The Coors Connection, South End Press, 1988, p. 125.
4.    Alice Bailey, TheExternalisation Of The Hierarchy, Lucis Trust, 1957, p. 511.
5.    James R. Patrick, Editor, America 2000/Goals 2000 Research Manual, Citizens for Academic Excellence, 1994, p. 120.
6.    Ibid., p. 117.
7.    Ibid., p. 495.